Modulation is the process of modifying one or more parameters of a base communications signal such as amplitude, frequency, phase, angle or simply the presence and absence of the signal, for the purpose of encoding information into the signal and transmitting it to a destination.

Modulation is performed at the physical layer of the OSI Model. The carrier signal can be an electrical current, a radio or microwave frequency or light. The process of modulation of the data also requires demodulation at the receiving end.

There are a number of modulation techniques:


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